Vidzeme is the most populated region of Latvia, accounting for more than a half of Latvia's population. The longest river of Latvia, the Gauja River, the highest peak Gaizins and the largest cave Gutmanala are located in Vidzeme. Vidzeme formed in the territory inhabited by Latgallians and Livs until the 13th century. The borders of the territory coincide with those of the so-called Latvian part of the Swedish Livonia of the 17th century. The borderline stretched along the rivers Daugava, Aiviekste and Pededze.
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